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Failures In Electrical Systems, Equipments & Materials

Failures In Electrical Systems, Equipments & Materials

Failures In Electrical Systems, Causes & Prevention Introduction Electrical systems, equipments and materials are subjected to failures that can cause the total destruction of equipments and severe power outages. For this reason it is important to know main causes of those failures, their consequences and the procedures and tests to be performed in order to find the reasons why equipment …

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Transformers Insulation Materials in Oil-Immersed & Dry Type T/F

Transformers Insulation Materials in Oil-Immersed & Dry Type T/F

Types of Transformers Insulation Materials Insulation in Oil-Immersed Transformers The most common insulation today for high-voltage windings in transformer is an enamel coating on the wire, with kraft paper used between layers. Low-voltage strip can be bare with paper insulation between layers. The use of paper wrapping on strap conductor is slowly being replaced by synthetic polymer coatings or wrapping …

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Power System Restoration – Outage, Voltage Collapse & Switching Programs

Power System Restoration - Outage, Voltage Collapse & Switching Programs

Power System Restoration – Power Outage & Restoring the Power Introduction Modern power grids are extremely complex and widespread. Surges in power overhead lines and other faults can cause massive network failures and permanent damage in power plants and in costumers’ equipments. If a network failure happens it is necessary to establish a program to restore power, avoiding the power …

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Working on De-Energized Electric Circuits, Networks & Equipments

Working on De-Energized Electric Circuits, Networks & Equipments

De-Energized Work procedure & Safety in Electrical Engineering Introduction Electricity presents to the workers and installations different hazards and for this reason local operations and maintenance of electrical equipment should only be performed after a detailed analysis of risk, definition of appropriated procedures and can only be done by instructed personnel to avoid emergency case. Policies & Procedures Each company …

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Design & Installation of Control & Monitoring Systems in Electrical Engineering

Design, Installation & Testing of Control & Monitoring Systems in Electrical Engineering

Design, Installation, Testing & Commissioning of Control & Monitoring Systems Design Implementation The preparation of the design of control and monitoring systems requires the definition of a set of actions: Definition of equipments and systems to be controlled and monitored (all equipments – circuit breakers, instrument transformers, isolators, switches, etc. – must be identified by a code, defined by the …

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Transformer Performance & Electrical Parameters

Transformer Performance & Electrical Parameters Calculation

Transformer Performance & Electrical Parameters Calculation Rated Power of Transformer Rated Power is the amount of power that a transformer can handle and it is limited by the size of the winding conductors, and by the corresponding amount of heat they will product when current is applied. This heat is caused by losses, which results in a difference between the …

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Treeing in XLPE Insulated Medium & High Voltage Cables

Treeing in a XLPE insulated cable

Electrical Treeing in XLPE Insulated MV & HV Cables (Manuel Bolotinha) Nowadays XLPE (Cross-linkedpolyethylene) is the most used insulation material of medium and high voltage cables, which presents important advantages over PVC (Polyvinylchloride) and other insulations materials. Main advantages of XLPE are: Thermal stability High dielectric strength and insulation resistance Lower losses (tan δ) Stability to ageing Allows more current carrying …

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MV & HV Cable Termination to Equipment & Joints

MV & HV Cable Termination to Equipment

Medium & High Voltage (MV & HV) Cable Termination & Joints General Problems & Factors for Termination Terminations to indoor switchgears, electric motors, power transformers, instrument transformers and other electrical MV and HV (MV: Medium Voltage; 1 kV < V < 60 kV. HV: High Voltage: V ≥ 60 kV) equipment issues arising for multiple terminations design, namely for switchgears, …

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