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Power System Restoration – Outage, Voltage Collapse & Switching Programs

Power System Restoration - Outage, Voltage Collapse & Switching Programs

Power System Restoration – Power Outage & Restoring the Power Introduction Modern power grids are extremely complex and widespread. Surges in power overhead lines and other faults can cause massive network failures and permanent damage in power plants and in costumers’ equipments. If a network failure happens it is necessary to establish a program to restore power, avoiding the power …

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Metering, Energy Metering, Monitoring & Measurement Transducers

Metering, Energy Metering, Monitoring & Measurement Transducers in Electrical Installation

What is Metering & Energy Metering in Electrical Installations? Electric Parameters to Monitor Control and monitoring of electrical installations and equipments requires electric parameters to be monitored and that their values could be read by operators (local and remote) in meters and in control microprocessed units in central operating stations and stored. Common monitored electric parameters are: Voltage (U, V) …

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Design & Installation of Control & Monitoring Systems in Electrical Engineering

Design, Installation & Testing of Control & Monitoring Systems in Electrical Engineering

Design, Installation, Testing & Commissioning of Control & Monitoring Systems Design Implementation The preparation of the design of control and monitoring systems requires the definition of a set of actions: Definition of equipments and systems to be controlled and monitored (all equipments – circuit breakers, instrument transformers, isolators, switches, etc. – must be identified by a code, defined by the …

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MV & HV Cable Termination to Equipment & Joints

MV & HV Cable Termination to Equipment

Medium & High Voltage (MV & HV) Cable Termination & Joints General Problems & Factors for Termination Terminations to indoor switchgears, electric motors, power transformers, instrument transformers and other electrical MV and HV (MV: Medium Voltage; 1 kV < V < 60 kV. HV: High Voltage: V ≥ 60 kV) equipment issues arising for multiple terminations design, namely for switchgears, …

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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Electrical Works

natural rubber electrical insulating gloves protection material labeling chart

Electrical Works – Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) To protect the employee’s body from injury Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be used. Basic PPE consists of: Cotton protective clothing with long sleeves Helmet or hard hat Goggles for eye protection Gloves (leather or rubber) Hearing protectors Safety footwear Figure 1 shows examples of PPE. Also Read: Emergency Planning for Safety & …

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Types & Characteristics of Surge Arresters

Lightning protection wires

Surge Arresters – Types & Characteristics Introduction Atmospheric lightning phenomenon on overhead lines and bare conductors or metallic structures of an outdoors substation and over voltages due to switching operations of equipments and networks (switching over voltages) can cause serious hazards to equipment. To protect the equipments and to aid insulation coordination surge arresters, also called “lightning arresters”, must be …

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Types of Control & Communication Cables

Control cables

Types of Cables used in Control & Communication Control Cables Control cables are used to connect instrument transformers, coils of circuit breakers and contactors, control switches, meters, protection devices and other control and monitoring equipment. Control cables have conductors in copper, insulation and outer sheath in PVC and they may have up to 150 cores. Each core is identified by …

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Electric Stress Control in Cable, Joints & Terminations

Electric Stress Control in Cable, Joints & Terminations

How to Control Electric Stress in Cable Joints & Terminations? Introduction Power cables are of great importance in power transmission and distribution systems. Terminations and joints are the basic accessories of the power cables and they are required to make connections between lines or to an electrical apparatus. The various aspects are considered while designing the cable terminations and joints …

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Busbars and Connectors in HV and EHV installations

Tubular busbar

Busbars and Connectors in Indoor & Outdoor Installations What is Electric Busbar? A conductor or group of conductor used to collect the power from incoming feeders and distribute to the outgoing feeders is known as busbar. In other words, Busbar is a junction where the incoming  and outgoing feeders current meets i.e. it collects the power at single point. Busbars …

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