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Failures In Electrical Systems, Equipments & Materials

Failures In Electrical Systems, Equipments & Materials

Failures In Electrical Systems, Causes & Prevention Introduction Electrical systems, equipments and materials are subjected to failures that can cause the total destruction of equipments and severe power outages. For this reason it is important to know main causes of those failures, their consequences and the procedures and tests to be performed in order to find the reasons why equipment …

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Transformers Insulation Materials in Oil-Immersed & Dry Type T/F

Transformers Insulation Materials in Oil-Immersed & Dry Type T/F

Types of Transformers Insulation Materials Insulation in Oil-Immersed Transformers The most common insulation today for high-voltage windings in transformer is an enamel coating on the wire, with kraft paper used between layers. Low-voltage strip can be bare with paper insulation between layers. The use of paper wrapping on strap conductor is slowly being replaced by synthetic polymer coatings or wrapping …

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Power System Restoration – Outage, Voltage Collapse & Switching Programs

Power System Restoration - Outage, Voltage Collapse & Switching Programs

Power System Restoration – Power Outage & Restoring the Power Introduction Modern power grids are extremely complex and widespread. Surges in power overhead lines and other faults can cause massive network failures and permanent damage in power plants and in costumers’ equipments. If a network failure happens it is necessary to establish a program to restore power, avoiding the power …

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Working on De-Energized Electric Circuits, Networks & Equipments

Working on De-Energized Electric Circuits, Networks & Equipments

De-Energized Work procedure & Safety in Electrical Engineering Introduction Electricity presents to the workers and installations different hazards and for this reason local operations and maintenance of electrical equipment should only be performed after a detailed analysis of risk, definition of appropriated procedures and can only be done by instructed personnel to avoid emergency case. Policies & Procedures Each company …

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Electrical Shock Hazards & Its Effects on Human Body

Electrical Shock Hazards & Effects on Human Body

Electrical Shock Hazards & Effects What is Electrical Hazard? Electrical hazard  or Electric Shock may be defined as “Dangerous event or condition due to direct or indirect electrical contact with energized conductor or equipment and from which a person may sustain electrical injury from shock, damage to workplace environment, damage to property or both. When working with or nearby electrical …

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Busbars and Connectors in HV and EHV installations

Tubular busbar

Busbars and Connectors in Indoor & Outdoor Installations What is Electric Busbar? A conductor or group of conductor used to collect the power from incoming feeders and distribute to the outgoing feeders is known as busbar. In other words, Busbar is a junction where the incoming  and outgoing feeders current meets i.e. it collects the power at single point. Busbars …

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Cables Feeder Protection – Faults Types, Causes & Differential Protection

Cables Feeder Protection – Types of Faults, Causes, Overcurrent & Differential Protection

Cables Feeder Protection – Overcurrent & Differential Protection Common Types of Faults Common failure modes and faults of cables are: Electrically induced failures Mechanically induced failures Thermally induced failures Metallic (semiconducting) shield damage Poor Metallic Shield Contact Explanation of each fault is follow respectively. Electrically induced failures These involve lightning, switching surges, and partial discharges. Partial discharges may be caused …

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