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Working in Confined Spaces – Hazards & Safety

Working in Confined Spaces - Hazards & Safety

Working in Confined Spaces – Workers Health & Safety  What is Confined Space ? A confined space is defined, in what concerns labor and safety regulations, as an area which is enclosed with limited openings for entry or exit but it’s large enough for entering and working and is not designed for continuous worker occupancy. The definition of this type …

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Electric Stress Control in Cable, Joints & Terminations

Electric Stress Control in Cable, Joints & Terminations

How to Control Electric Stress in Cable Joints & Terminations? Introduction Power cables are of great importance in power transmission and distribution systems. Terminations and joints are the basic accessories of the power cables and they are required to make connections between lines or to an electrical apparatus. The various aspects are considered while designing the cable terminations and joints …

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Public Street & Road Lighting & Illumination Design

Public Street & Road Lighting & Illumination Design

Public Street & Road Lighting – General Principles, ISO & IEC Standards  Lighting Basic Parameters Basic parameters used in lighting are: Luminous flux – notation: Φ ; unit: lumen ( lm ). Luminous intensity – notation: I; unit: candela ( cd ). Illuminance – notation: E; unit: lux  ( lx or lux ). Luminance – notation: L; unit: cd / …

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How to Test a Diode using Digital & Analog Multimeter – 4 Ways.

Testing Diode using DMM (Diode Test Mode + Resistance Mode)

Test a Diode by Analog & Digital Multimeter Troubleshooting Electronic Devices & Components Troubleshooting in electronic and electrical engineering is an important part and one must know the basic skills and knowledge about the components to design and troubleshoot a circuit. It is advisable to test component before assembling and placing in a circuit. Sometimes, we get unexpected results and …

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All About Electrical Protection Systems, Devices And Units

Electrical Protection Systems And Units

Electrical Protection Units And Systems Introduction to Electrical Protection Systems HV, MV and LV[1] electric installations and equipments are subjected to internal and external faults that can cause serious damages in persons and other equipments. To avoid and to minimize the consequences of those faults protection devices associated to equipments that are able to break electric current are required. For …

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Maintenance of Transformer – Power Transformers Maintenance, Diagnostic & Monitoring

Maintenance of Power Transformer - Transformer Diagnostic and Monitoring

Maintenance of Power Transformer – Transformer Diagnostic and Monitoring Introduction Being transformers static machines without any moving and turning parts, they are very reliable machines, and if maintained properly, can last for 40 years or more. Also they do not trip or blow when oven-stressed (except under extreme conditions), transformers are frequently overloaded and allowed to operate well beyond its …

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Emergency Generator Set – Construction, Installation, Maintenance & Wiring

Construction and Components of Emergency Generator

An Overview of Emergency Generator Set (Manuel Bolotinha) Introduction to Emergency Generator Set Hospitals, airports, shopping malls and office buildings, just to mention some examples, are very sensitive, in what concerns safety of people and goods, to power outages caused by faults in medium (MV) and low voltage (LV) distribution networks and even in high voltage (HV[1]) transmission networks. When …

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Transformers Fire Protection System – Causes, Types & Requirements

Transformers Fire Protection System – Causes, Types & Requirements

Basic Requirements for Transformers Fire Protection System By: Manuel Bolotinha Causes of Fire in Transformers Excessive overheating, extremely severe short circuits, faults in the oil and lightning strokes may cause a fire on transformers. Transformer fires are rare but the impact is great. Even though a transformer involved in a fire likely will be destroyed almost immediately, as seen in …

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