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AC Fundamentals

Insulating And Dielectric Materials – Types, Properties & Applications

Types, Properties & Applications of Insulating And Dielectric Materials

An Introduction to Insulating And Dielectric Materials Definition of Insulating and Dielectric Materials An electrical insulating material can be defined as the material that does not allow electric current to pass through it. For electrical applications a particular category of insulating materials is used to separate electrically the conducting parts of equipment from each other and from earthed and “no …

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Introduction to Harmonics – Effect of Harmonics on Power System

Introduction to Harmonics

What are Harmonics and How to Filter and Eliminate it. (Manuel Bolotinha) Introduction to Harmonics The quality of electrical power supply is an important issue both for utility companies and users, but that quality may affected by electromagnetic disturbances. Among these disturbances it must be highlighted harmonics that happens in all voltage levels and whose study, calculation of acceptable values …

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Short Circuit Currents And Symmetrical Components

Short Circuit Currents faults And Symmetrical Components

Short Circuit Currents And Symmetrical Components (Manuel Bolotinha) Short Circuit Faults and Currents Short-circuits can occur phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth, mainly due to: Dielectric breakdown of insulating materials (ageing, severe overheating and overvoltages, mechanical stress and chemical corrosion are the main factors for dielectric breakdown) Decrease of creepage distance (the shortest path between two conductive parts – or between a conductive …

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Is Reactive Power Useful? Importance of Reactive Power

Is Reactive Power Useful? Importance of Reactive Power

What is Reactive Power and Why it is Useful?  In recent years, the reactive power control has been the subject of a systematic study as it plays an important role in maintaining a secure voltage profile in a large scale transmission system. Though it is a byproduct of alternating current systems, it is needed for the acceptable functioning of various …

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Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC & DC Circuits

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC & DC Circuits

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for AC & DC Circuits Introduction to Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Very often we come across various real time circuits that works based on maximum power transfer theorem. For effective way of connecting source to load, an impedance matching transformer is used. In case of transmission lines, the distortion and reflections are avoided by making source …

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Comparison between Star and Delta Connections

Comparison between Star and Delta Connections

Main Different between Star and Delta Connections Comparison between Star (Y) and Delta (Δ) Connections Star (Y) Connection Delta (Δ) Connection In STAR connection, the starting or finishing ends (Similar ends) of three coils are connected together to form the neutral point. A common wire is taken out from the neutral point which is called Neutral. In DELTA connection, the …

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Delta Connection (Δ): 3 Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Delta Connection (Δ) Three Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Delta Connection  (Δ) In this system of interconnection, the starting ends of the three phases or coils are connected to the finishing ends of the coil. Or the starting end of the first coil is connected to the finishing end of the second coil and so on (for all three coils) and it looks like a closed mesh or circuit …

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Star Connection (Y): Three Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Star Connection (Y): Three Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Star Connection (Y) In this kind of interconnection, the starting ends or finishing ends (Similar ends) of three coils are connected together to form the neutral point. Or Star Connection is obtained by connecting together similar ends of the three coils, either “Starting” or “finishing”. The other ends are joined to the line wires. The common point is called the …

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Three Phase Current Values in a 3-Phase System

Three Phase Current Values in a 3-Phase System. current in a poly phase system

Three Phase Current Values in a 3-Phase System The following points may be noted for understanding the division of Three Phase Current in a 3-Phase System       1.  The arrow symbols shown alongside three phase current (IR, IY and IB) in fig 1 and 2 does not indicate the currents directions in a particular moment but shows the current directions …

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Basic Magnetic Terms definition with Formulas

Basic Magnetic Terms definition with Formulas

Magnetic and Magnetism Important terms definition and formulas Magnetic field or Magnetic Induction (B) Magnet or Electromagnet produces a Magnetic field. The field where the magnet attracts or repels magnetic materials such as iron, steel, etc. it may be defined as a force on a moving charge, F=q x v x B Where      F= Force,      V = Speed …

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