 Transformer

# Induction law for Transformer

## Induction law for Transformer

The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday’s law of induction, which states that: where Vs is the instantaneous voltage, Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil in a Transformer and Φ is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer, the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage Np/Ns is known as the turns ratio, and is the primary functional characteristic of any transformer. In the case of step-up transformers, this may sometimes be stated as the reciprocal, Ns/Np. Turns ratio is commonly expressed as an irreducible fraction or ratio: for example, a transformer with primary and secondary windings of, respectively, 100 and 150 turns is said to have a turns ratio of 2:3 rather than 0.667 or 100:150.
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