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Basic/Important Electrical Formulas

Design of Grounding / Earthing System in a Substation Grid

Design of Grounding Earthing System in a Substation Grid - Substation earthing grid

Design of Earthing / Grounding System in a Substation Grid By: Manuel Bolotinha Introduction to Substation Earthing Grid In high and medium voltage[1]Air Insulated Substations (AIS) the electromagnetic field, which causes are the static charges of bare cable and conductors and by the atmospheric conditions (surges), induce voltages at no-live parts of the installation that create potential differences between metallic …

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Short Circuit Currents And Symmetrical Components

Short Circuit Currents faults And Symmetrical Components

Short Circuit Currents And Symmetrical Components (Manuel Bolotinha) Short Circuit Faults and Currents Short-circuits can occur phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth, mainly due to: Dielectric breakdown of insulating materials (ageing, severe overheating and overvoltages, mechanical stress and chemical corrosion are the main factors for dielectric breakdown) Decrease of creepage distance (the shortest path between two conductive parts – or between a conductive …

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Lighting Design Calculation in a Building – Step by Step

Lighting Design Calculation in a Building - Step by Step

How to do Lighting Design Calculation in a Building – Electrical Wiring Installation In professional field proper lighting design is very important because an under lighting arrangement will decrease the efficiency of the task for which the lightings were designed and an over lighting arrangement will result in over expenditure of the company. On small scale this difference is not …

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SUPERNODE Circuit Analysis | Step by Step with Solved Example

SUPERNODE Circuit Analysis Step by Step with Solved Example

SUPERNODE Circuit Analysis | Step by Step with Solved Example Today, we will try to answer the common question that why we use Supernode circuit analysis while we can simplify the circuit by simple Node or Nodal Circuit analysis.   In previous article, we have discussed that why we use supermesh circuit analysis instead of using simple mesh analysis for …

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SUPERMESH Circuit Analysis | Step by Step with Solved Example

supermesh with dependent current source, supermesh analysis problems with solutions

SUPERMESH Circuit Analysis | Step by Step with Solved Example Supermesh or Supermesh Analysis is a better technique instead of using Mesh analysis to analysis such a complex electric circuit or network, where two meshes have a current source as a common element. This is the same where we use Supernode circuit analysis instead of Node or Nodal circuit analysis …

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Cramer’s Rule | Cramer’s Rule Calculator 2 & 3 Equations System

Cramer's rule. step by step procedure with solved example

Cramer’s Rule & Calculator for Linear Circuit Analysis | Step by Step with Solved Examples Today, we are going to share another simple but powerful circuit analysis technique which is known as “Cramer’s Rule“. SUPERMESH Circuit Analysis | Step by Step with Solved Example Update: We have added Online Cramer’s Rule Calculator where you can solve two equations system as …

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Advance Voltage Drop Calculator and Voltage Drop Formula

Advance Voltage Drop Calculator and Voltage Drop Formula

Advance Voltage Drop Calculator and Voltage Drop Formula. According to the NEC (National Electric Code) [210.19 A (1)] FPN number 4 and [215.2 A (3)] FPN number 2, the allowable Voltage drop for feeders is 3% and the acceptable voltage drop for final sub circuit and branch circuit is 5% for proper and efficient operation. For example, if the Supply …

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Air Circuit Breaker (ACB): Construction, Operation, Types and Uses

Delixi Air Circuit Breaker External labels (Rated Current and Voltage = 1kA, 415V)

Air Circuit Breaker (ACB): Construction, Operation, Types and Applications  Circuit Breaker A circuit breaker is a device, which can Make or Break a circuit manually or by remote control under normal conditions Break a Circuit automatically under fault conditions (like over current, Short circuit, etc.) Make a circuit manually or by remote control under fault conditions A circuit breaker is …

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Delta Connection (Δ): 3 Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Delta Connection (Δ) Three Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Delta Connection  (Δ) In this system of interconnection, the starting ends of the three phases or coils are connected to the finishing ends of the coil. Or the starting end of the first coil is connected to the finishing end of the second coil and so on (for all three coils) and it looks like a closed mesh or circuit …

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Star Connection (Y): Three Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Star Connection (Y): Three Phase Power, Voltage & Current Values

Star Connection (Y) In this kind of interconnection, the starting ends or finishing ends (Similar ends) of three coils are connected together to form the neutral point. Or Star Connection is obtained by connecting together similar ends of the three coils, either “Starting” or “finishing”. The other ends are joined to the line wires. The common point is called the …

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