Integration of Renewable Energy with Grid System
Types of energy which exist infinitely and never run out completely are renewable forms of energy. Consider wind, coal, biomass, propane , uranium, water ,sun, these are the sources that are naturally available to us, never run out and they were not formed.
Far in history concept of production of electricity from these sources stepped in the industry and with the passage of time proper production was started . According to a survey in 2009 this production was 19% of total 100% and this percentage has increased to about 49% according to latest survey in America in 2013. In European countries these resources are getting encouraged to be merged in conventional distributive systems.
Coming to the basic idea as these sources can share the actual electric load and also they have capability to merge in small power systems without any connections to the grid.
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When we talk about grid systems these systems allow us to allocate power everywhere in every application starting from a household need to commercial need of any level.
These resources are best alternative solution to meet all needs of electric load. Every part of the world is blessed with almost all means of renewable energy so it is most likely solution that if we can merge the production of renewable energy sources with our main distributing grid system.
These sources will take almost 70% of the load as long as water is flowing, wind is blowing, and sun is shining, or in other scenario if somehow these sources are temporary unavailable our grid system can take load on momentary basis.
Now the question arises that how to merge these sources in our grid systems. The first main requirement is the balancing of overall system and balancing is totally dependent on our needs. About half of the cost of total deployed system will be spent on this balancing system according to load and application requirements. But normal required equipments are as follow.
Requirements for connections of grids
Place for deployment, community and other specific requirements
Balancing of overall Grid system requires
- Power Conditioning instrumentation
- Safety requirement
- Smart meters for efficient performance
Once it has been decided that these sources are going to get connected with conventional grid system t the most simplest form is direct connection of produced current to the load but the if storage is required situation get changed.
For storage batteries are required along with the charge controller. Standard diagram for storage will look like this…Batteries are used as backups and are an effective mean of storage when connected to wind or photovoltaic electricity. Batteries (lead acid) are deep cycle batteries and they last for about 9-10 years if maintained properly.
Regulation of current to the battery is completely controlled by charge controller. Is controller keep the battery charged full and also avoids the overcharging of battery? Moreover it also keeps check when extra current is drawn by load side and also prevent over charging by deployment of shunt.
Then power conditioning is the most important thing that must be fulfilled. Energy produced by these sources is mostly in DC so conversion of DC to AC is must for AC transmission and distribution in the system.
- Matching of frequency
- Matching of Voltage
- Matching of phase
- Matching of constant power to oscillating
Inverters are used to do this power conditioning. Costing of inverters is the next step which includes following things
- Area and level of Application
- Quality of the electricity
- Voltage of the incoming current
- AC voltage required
- Power requirements
- Other inverter features such as meters and indicator lights.
Safety is the most important factor that came in mind whenever there is dealing of electricity.Safety systems protects the complete systems from being damaged due to sudden lightening, power drives and leakages, or faulty Current.
These were the steps that can lead us to merge renewable energy sources with our smart grids and by deployment of these systems majority of loads can be shared and our need can be fulfilled.
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