**ISO/IEC 10918-1 : 1993(E)**

**3.1.108**

**renormalization:**

The doubling of the probability interval and the code register value until the probability

interval exceeds a fixed minimum value (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.109**

**restart interval:**

The integer number of MCUs processed as an independent sequence within a scan.

**3.1.110**

**restart marker:**

The marker that separates two restart intervals in a scan.

**3.1.111**

**run (length):**

Number of consecutive symbols of the same value.

**3.1.112**

**sample:**

One element in the two-dimensional array which comprises a component.

**3.1.113**

**sample-interleaved: **

The descriptive term applied to the repetitive multiplexing of small groups of samples from

each component in a scan in a specific order.

**3.1.114**

**scan:**

A single pass through the data for one or more of the components in an image.

**3.1.115**

**scan header:**

A marker segment that contains a start-of-scan marker and associated scan parameters that are

coded at the beginning of a scan.

**3.1.116**

**sequential (coding):**

One of the lossless or DCT-based coding processes defined in this Specification in which

each component of the image is encoded within a single scan.

**3.1.117**

**sequential DCT-based:**

The mode of operation which refers to any one of the processes defined in Annex F.

**3.1.118**

**spectral selection: **

A progressive coding process in which the zig-zag sequence is divided into bands of one or

more contiguous coefficients, and each band is coded in one scan.

**3.1.119**

**stack counter:**

The count of X'FF' bytes which are held, pending resolution of carry-over in the arithmetic

encoder.

**3.1.120**

**statistical conditioning:**

The selection, based on prior coding decisions, of one estimate out of a set of

conditional probability estimates (in arithmetic coding).

**3.1.121**

**statistical model: **

The assignment of a particular conditional probability estimate to each of the binary

arithmetic coding decisions.

**3.1.122**

**statistics area: **

The array of statistics bins required for a coding process which uses arithmetic coding.

**3.1.123**

**statistics bin:**

The storage location where an index is stored which identifies the value of the conditional

probability estimate used for a particular arithmetic coding binary decision.

**3.1.124**

**successive approximation:**

A progressive coding process in which the coefficients are coded with reduced

precision in the first scan, and precision is increased by one bit with each succeeding scan.

**3.1.125**

**table specification data:**

The coded representation from which the tables used in the encoder and decoder are

generated and their destinations specified.

**3.1.126**

**transcoder:**

A procedure for converting compressed image data of one encoder process to compressed image

data of another encoder process.

**3.1.127**

**(uniform) quantization:**

The procedure by which DCT coefficients are linearly scaled in order to achieve

compression.

**3.1.128**

**upsampling (filter):**

A procedure by which the spatial resolution of an image is increased (in hierarchical mode

coding).

**3.1.129**

**vertical sampling factor:**

The relative number of vertical data units of a particular component with respect to

the number of vertical data units in the other components in the frame.

**3.1.130**

**zero byte:**

The X'00' byte.

**3.1.131**

**zig-zag sequence:**

A specific sequential ordering of the DCT coefficients from (approximately) lowest spatial

frequency to highest.

**3.1.132**

**3-sample predictor:**

A linear combination of the three nearest neighbor reconstructed samples to the left and

above (in lossless mode coding).

**6**

**CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)**