**Resistance**

The property of a substance or material which oppose the flow of electricity through it is called resistance OR,

*is the ability of a circuit or element (which is called resistor) to oppose current.*

**Resistance**Examples of Resistors with the ability of high resistance are Wood, Air, Mica, Glass, Rubber, Tungsten etc.

Unit of Resistance is “Ohm” and it is denoted by Ω and it is represented by “R”.

**AC Resistance**

In Simple words, Resistance in AC circuits is called Impedance. Or

The Overall resistance (Resistance, Inductive reactance and Capacitive reactance) in AC circuits is called Impedance (Z).

**Explanation:**

When AC Current pass through a wire (resistor, inductor), then current produces a magnetic field across that wire which opposes the flow of AC Current in it along with the resistance of that wire. This oppose cause is called Inductance or Inductance is the property of Coil (or wire) due to which opposes any increase or decrease of current or flux through it. Also, we know that inductance is only exist in AC because the magnitude of current continuously changing

**Inductive Reactance**X

_{L}, is the property of Coil or wire in an AC circuit which opposes the change in the current. The unit of Inductive reactance is same as Resistance, capacitive reactance i.e. Ohm (Ω) but the representative symbol of capacitive reactance is X

_{L}.

**Likewise,**

**Capacitive Reactance**in a capacitive circuit is the opposition to current flow in AC circuits only. The unit of capacitive reactance is same as Resistance, Inductive reactance i.e. Ohm (Ω) but the representative symbol of capacitive reactance is X

_{C}.

**Measuring AC Resistance**

Electrical Resistance & Impedance Formulas in AC Circuits

In AC Circuits (Capacitive or inductive Load), Resistance = Impedance i.e., R = Z

Z = √ (R

^{2}+ X_{L}^{2})… In case of Inductive LoadZ = √ (R

^{2}+ X_{C}^{2})…In case of Capacitive LoadZ = √ (R

^{2}+ (X_{L}– X_{C})^{2}…In case of both inductive and capacitive Loads.***Good to know:**

Where;

X

_{L }= Inductive reactanceX

_{L }= 2πfL…Where L = Inductance in HenryAnd;

Xc = Capacitive reactance

Xc = 1/2πfC… Where C = Capacitance in Farads.

**DC Resistance**

We know that there is no concept of Inductive and Coactive reactances in DC Circuits. i.e. capacitive and inductive reactances in DC circuits zero because there is no frequency in DC circuits, i.e. magnitude of DC current is constant. Therefore, only the original resistance of wire comes into play.

Good to know:

That’s why the resistance offered by a wire is lower for DC than AC.

**Measuring DC Resistance**

Electrical Resistance Formulas

In DC Circuits, we calculate the resistance by Ohm’s Law.

R = V/I.

Good to Know:

When solving electric circuits for finding resistance and you are not sure which one should you take into account whether AC or DC resistances, then, if the current passed is AC, then take AC resistance else if the current passed is DC, take DC resistance.

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brother can u explain what is the concept for estimate wire mm2 to current capacity?

It is really helpful not only to the students but also for all teaching community.

nice one

I would like to defer your definition of AC resistance. AC resistance is the resistance of the conductor, taking into effect the Skin and proximity effect. The one defined here is called inductive or capacitive reactance or impedance.

explanation of answer is as simple words that can easily understand evey one and good .

Excellet Explanation

Very naive and with errors: both kind of currents ac and dc running thru material, even insulation, create magnetic field proportionally to current; whatever natures of these magnetic fields are different. Please note: even air movement after nuclear explosion generates huge magnetic field which caused many scientific apparatuses damage in beginning of nuclear experiments. What kind is the current: DC or AC? Air with electrons is moving in one direction only (out of center of explosion), but high voltage is generated even is straight wire!

Very good information, thank you!

In dc, frequency is Zero so capacitive reactance and inductive reactance are infinity and zero. Then how capacitor and inductor used in DC system(choppers). How it work on DC .

thanks that wen page is help me to clear my concepts thanks again

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THANKS.

very importent basic electrical information