Single Phase Mains Distribution Installation in a Multistory Building
In today electrical wiring installation tutorial, we will show how to wire a single Phase Consumer Unit Installation in a single-storey building from Utility Pole to a 1-Phase Energy Meter & 1-Phase Distribution board and then How to connect Single Phase Loads in single Phase Wiring Distribution System in home electric supply system.
In our previous posts, We have learned the Single Phase & Three Phase electrical wiring installation in home and already know that what are Single Phase Power, Three Phase Power, Why and when we need it? We also shown what are the MDB, DB, Final Sub Circuit, MCB, MCCB, CB and RCD etc. So we will have to go strait forward to the point as follow. Now lets begin.
Related Wiring Tutorials:
- Three Phase Electrical Wiring Installation in Home – NEC & IEC
- 3-Phase & 1-Phase Electrical Distribution Wiring Installation in Multistory Building
Requirements for Single Phase Wring Installation in Multistory Building
- Single Phase Energy meter: 1 No
- Two Pole MCCB, 63A to 100A: 1 No
- Double Pole, 63A, 30mA Trip Current RCD: 3 Nos
- Double Pole MCBs, 63A: 3 Nos
- Single Pole, 20A, MCB: 6 Nos
- Single Pole, 16A, MCB: 3 Nos
- Single Pole, 10A, MCB: 6 Nos
- Distribution board cases: 3 Nos
- Copper strips for MCB common connection = 3 Nos (Cu Busbar segment)
- Copper strip Busbar for Earth & Ground Link
How to Wire Single Phase Main Distribution Board in Multistory Building?
We have shown the basic electrical wiring of bulb, fans etc (i.e. Sub-circuits and final sub circuits) in our previous posts, so follow the steps below to do the same as mention below..
To do single phase wring electric distribution system in a multi-storey building, follow the following steps.
- First of all, connect the single-phase energy meter to the mains supply i.e. Connect the Neutral and Live Wire from utility pole in the first two input slots of single phase energy meter respectively as shown in fig 1. if you aren’t sure that how to wire a three-phase energy meter, then check this simple tutorial which show How To Wire a Single Phase kWh meter ( Digital or analog Energy Meter).
- Connect the MCCB (Moulded Case circuit Breaker) as a two pole main switch to the incoming Phase (or Live) and Neutral (L and N) from 1-phase energy meter. Check The below section for proper wiring color codes according to your area i.e IEC and NEC.
- Now connect the outgoing Phase and Neutral (L and N) from MCCB (Moulded Case circuit Breaker) to the DP (Double Pole MCB) , RCD, SP (Single Pole MCBs and load) of each storey, as shown in fig)
- Now connect the RCD from DP with Phase (Line) and Related Neutral Link. The Out going Phase lines should be connected to the final circuits and final sub circuits. The same can be done for Neutral Wires.
- Finally, Connect the electrical devices and appliances with the Earth link terminal which leads to earth electrode in the earthing and grounding system as shown in fig.
- Do the the same steps for all three distribution boards in different storey (Three storeys in our case).
Keep in mind that you have to follow the following instructions while installing single phase mains distribution in multistory building.
- Use separate main breaker for each storey and then distribute wiring in additional three or four main circuits in different sections. If you directly connect the over all load of different storys to the main breaker instead of separate main board, all the connected load (bulbs, fans etc) would disconnect in the whole building at once in case of tripping any circuit due to some reason (short circuit etc) which leads to trip the main switch.
- In case of single circuit instead of three circuits, if the load of a single storey increases, the more current will have to flow and cables may be overheated. Also, voltage drop would be increased so the rated voltage may not reach to the electrical appliances. In that case, the connected light bulbs would be dimmer and other appliances may not work properly. Moreover, there is a risk of electric fire and hazard in the building due to overheated cables.
- You have to use the main breaker with proper rating i.e. which carry the total load current of all distribution boards of each storey and use the breaker in sub distribution board according to the load of that desired storey i.e. fans, lights etc in single storey and so on for other storeys. Also, You may use a 4-Pole MCCB instead of 3-Pole MCCB as the last 4th slot can be used to connected the Neutral Wire (Check the diagram and brochure for proper guidance).
Electrical Wiring Color Codes of IEC and NEC
Wiring Color Code: We have used Red for Live or Phase , Black for Neutral and Green for Earth Wire. You may use the specific area codes i.e. IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission (UK, EU etc) or NEC (National Electrical Code [US & Canada] where; NEC: Single Phase 120V AC: Black = Phase or Line, White = Neutral and Green/Yellow = Earth Conductor IEC: Single Phase 230V AC: Brown = Phase or Line, Blue = Neutral and Green = Earth Conductor
Wiring Color Code:
We have used Red for Live or Phase , Black for Neutral and Green for Earth Wire. You may use the specific area codes i.e. IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission (UK, EU etc) or NEC (National Electrical Code [US & Canada] where;
Single Phase 120V AC:
Black = Phase or Line, White = Neutral and Green/Yellow = Earth Conductor
Single Phase 230V AC:
Brown = Phase or Line, Blue = Neutral and Green = Earth Conductor
- Related Post: Staircase Wiring Circuit Diagram – How to Control a Lamp from 2 Places by 2-Way Switches?
Click image to enlarge
In a Three Phase Wiring Distribution System (Star Connection i.e. 3 Phase, 4 Wire System);
Line to Line Voltage = 415V AC (208V in US)
Line to Neutral Voltage = 230V (120V in US)
- L1 to L2= 440 V
- L2 to L3= 440 V
- L3 to L1= 440 V
- L1 to N = 230 V
- L2 to N = 230 V
- L3 to N = 230 V
in USA and other Countries
- L1 to L2= 208V
- L2 to L3= 208V
- L3 to L1= 208V
- L1 to N = 120V
- L2 to N = 120V
- L3 to N = 120V
Wiring Diagram of single Phase Distribution Board In Multi-Storey Building
- Electricity is Our Enemy, if you give it a chance to kill you, Remember, they will never miss it. Please read all caution and instruction while doing this tutorial in practical.
- Disconnect the power source before servicing, repairing or installing electrical equipments.
- Ue the proper cable in size with this simple calculation method ( How to determine the suitable size of cable for Electrical Wiring Installation)
- Never try to work on electricity without proper guidance and care.
- Work with electricity only in presence of those persons who has good knowledge and practical work and experience who know how to deal with electricity.
- Read all the instruction and cautions and follow them strictly.
- Doing your own electrical work is dangerous as well as illegal in some areas.Contact the licensed electrician or the power supply company before practicing any change in electrical wiring connection.
- The author will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information or if you try any circuit in wrong format. So please! Be careful because it’s all about electricity and electricity is too dangerous.
You may also check the related Electrical Wiring Installation Tutorials.