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How to Calculate/Find the Rating of Transformer in kVA (Single Phase and Three Phase)?

How to Calculate/Find the Rating of Transformer in kVA (Single Phase and Three Phase)?

We know that, Transformer always rated in kVA.  Below are the two simple formulas to find the rating of Single phase and Three phase Transformers.

Find Rating of Single Phase Transformer

Rating of Single Phase Transformer:
P = V x I.
Rating of a single phase transformer in kVA
kVA= (V x I) / 1000

Rating of a Three Phase Transformer

Rating of a Three Phase Transformer:
P = √3. V x I
Rating of a Three phase transformer in kVA
kVA = (√3. V x I) /1000
But Wait, A question is raised here… Look at the General nameplate rating of a 100kVAtransformer.How to Calculate/Find the Rating of Transformer in kVA (Single Phase and Three Phase)?
Did you notice something????Anyway, I don’t care what is your answer 😉  but lets me try to explain.
Here is the rating of Transformer is 100kVA.
But Primary Voltages or High Voltages (H.V) is 11000 V = 11kV.
And Primary Current on High Voltage side is 5.25 Amperes.
Also Secondary voltages or Low Voltages (L.V) is 415 Volts
And Secondary Current (Current on Low voltages side) is 139.1 Amperes.
In simple words,
Transformer rating in kVA = 100 kVA
Primary Voltages = 11000 = 11kV
Primary Current = 5.25 A
Secondary Voltages = 415V
Secondary Current = 139.1 Amperes.
Now calculate for the rating of transformer according to
P=V x I (Primary voltage x primary current)
P = 11000V x 5.25A = 57,750 VA = 57.75kVA
Or P = V x I (Secondary voltages x Secondary Current)
P= 415V x 139.1A = 57,726 VA = 57.72kVA
Once again, we noticed that the rating of Transformer (on Nameplate) is 100kVA but according to calculation…it comes about 57kVA…
The difference comes due to ignorance of that we used single phase formula instead of three phase formula.
Now try with this formula 
P = √3 x V x I
P=√3 Vx I (Primary voltage x primary current)
P =√3 x 11000V x 5.25A = 1.732 x 11000V x 5.25A = 100,025 VA = 100kVA
Or P = √3 x V x I (Secondary voltages x Secondary Current)
P= √3 x 415V x 139.1A = 1.732 x 415V x 139.1A= 99,985 VA = 99.98kVA
Consider the (next) following example.
Voltage (Line to line) = 208 V.
Current (Line Current) = 139 A
Now rating of the three phase transformer
P =  √3 x V x I
P = √3 x 208 x 139A = 1.732 x 208 x 139
P = 50077 VA = 50kVA
Note: This post has been made on the request of our Page fan Anil Vijay.

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  1. Why is transformer rating always written in KVA? We know that the unit of Power is Watt. then why don't we write transformer rating in Watts?

    • The two types of transformer are core loss and ohmic losses.<br />The core loss depends on transformer voltage and ohmic loss depends on transformer current.As these losses depends on transformer voltage and current and are almost unaffected by the load pf, transformer rated output is expressed in VA or in KVa.

    • because the power factor of the load is not known so transformer rating is given in KVA

    • Usman Shabbir B.Tech(Hons)

      Because it has three resins:
      1. Transformer winding consists Copper and copper losses are occurs in winding due to current(I).
      2. Transformer core obliviously made by Ferromagnetic material and core losses are occurs in core due to voltage(V).
      3. Transformer transmit high electrical energy so reduce the unite of voltages level engineers used kilo(K) unit for transformer.
      So, that transformer rated in KVA mean Kilo volt Ampere.


    • Why does my .5 kva transformer say its rated for 31.25 amps but wen i try and size my transformer needed it says i need 7.68 kVa transformer for 32 amps at 227 volts

  2. dear in last consideration u shows that line to line volts is 208V then after calculation over value is came 50 KVA but actual value is 100 KVA have. plz Kindly explain it

  3. Your article looks great!Thanks for you sharing. I love it. High Voltage Transformers

  4. If we dont know the line current,how 2 calculate the rating?

  5. kW=kva×pf<br />is it right?

    • Yes it is 100% right. When considering the apparent power we also considered the effect of inductor and capacitor which always will be minimized by using power factor correction technique. Points to be remembered: KVA is always greater then KW because KW only have the effect of resistor. KVA=KW if and only if the power factor is one so the load is pure

  6. Sridhar Chary

    sir could u explain DYn-11…..

  7. Hello Sir, Can u explain why in transformer,the power factor is not considering.? And why in others.?

    • Correct me if I&#39;m wrong &#39; The power factor is determined by the load, not the transformer. The PF on the load side of the transformer will be the same as it is on the primary, except at very light loads where the magnetizing current could have some effect. Having said that, the impedance in the primary circuit could effect the PF of the system. In other words, for a given load (with

  8. Kanishka Kani

    hi sir, how do the transformer designer calculate the turns, emf, loss, flux, area if we say we need1600KVA

  9. Kanishka Kani

    hi sir, how does transformer designer calculate flux, emf, loss, turns if v just say the rating eg,1600Kva if u reply with a example calculation it will be comfortable

  10. Hi Sir, what size transformer do I need for 5A,230V Load?

  11. dear 220kv/500kv transmission poll install in the forest.and we don&#39;t know the load and the production tell the method of load and production identification?<br />

  12. hi sir, i want to design a 500VA rating of transformer.but i dont understand how to select the v/g &amp; c/n value? and no. of turn on each side of transformer?<br />pls kindely rply me<br />

  13. Sir ,why we dont consider power factor for transfrmer but for generator or motor?

  14. Sir ,why we dont consider power factor for transfrmer but for generator or motor

  15. Dear Sir, I want to know about how to select step down transformer rating. 415/230V and VA rating. ..?..I mean how we can be calculated. .based on the which factors. .

  16. Can you explain me how to calculate the output current of 3 phase trasformer? can you explain me with formula?

  17. Sir, how to calculate the rating of VCB for HT side,ACB for LT side and what are the CT meter ratio required,the load the shop is 410 kw ( 500 kva transformer)

  18. high sir i got one assignment from my teacher Vo=0 to 15 volts and iL=load current is 3 and design the transformer

  19. Any one have complete designing calculation of distribution transformer of 25KVA

  20. Can any one explains about Cable cross bonding and transposition clearly..

    Thanks in advance.
    Sk Anwar Basha.

  21. P unit is KW
    S unit is kVA, MVA.
    P unit is kVAR.
    Why you write P (kVA)? Please explain? Do you know Transformer formula? S2 = P2 + Q2 ?

  22. Sorry, Q unit is kVAR.

  23. Durga chararn behera

    send me star-delta starter control wiring diagram with remote control &indication wiring.

  24. Durga chararn behera

    calculation how much kvar capacitor will connected to100hp load

  25. is there another reason for why transformer rating in KVA and what is the necessity of power factor

  26. Hi Sir,
    could you please explain me how to calculate knee point voltage Vk of a CT, say 132/33kv, 30 MVA Transformer feeder. %z= 8.5

  27. Sir 500VA Control transformer take how many ampere and how to calculate it????

  28. respected sir:
    if we make a transformar that have;
    pri: 230v

    sec: 12v and 35am

    how much turns required for this

    if we use the core size(2*3) tell me with exemple

  29. A.Hafeez Khan

    Dear sir I am facing a problem with electricity board of Talangan State.
    Kindly guide me to come out with this problem,

    I had applied 18 nos 5kw each domastic services & 2nos each 15&20kw commercial services total load 125 kW for my Residential/Commercial Apartment, department asking me for 160kva but I’m arguing for 100kva. my calculation is for domestic 18×05=90KW ÷ 2 ÷ 0.9 = 50,
    commercial 15+20=35KW ÷ 1.5 ÷ 0.9 =25.92,
    Total KVA 75.92
    The formula which I mention is belongs TSSPDCL.
    Why should I take 160kva if 100 kva is sufficient to me.

    Dear sir I am waiting for your replay for this particular formula if I get any book or however you please guide me
    Thank you

  30. sir as in this case you showed us max load of transformer 100 kva but i want to ask you how much load it will support actually on site. what is the safety factor or service factor of transformer.lets suppose we have a load of 1200 kva now tell me appropriate size of transformer for this load thanks

  31. In a numerical probem, transformer rating is given as 220/13.8 KV. I want to know which is primary and which is its secondary?

  32. dear i am asking for load .how much kva rating of transformer for 200kva load

    • The capacity of transformer required for 200 Kva load can be correctly ascertained only after receiving the individual loading pattern . For example the total load of 200 Kva from small motors like 5 , 10 HP ( KVA ) each the transformer of 200 KVA only is enough.But If a individual load is more tha 150 KVA You will need at least 300 KVA capacity transformer. RAJ LAHARE

  33. 13.8kv is primary and 220/380 is secondry

  34. Hello, I am facing a little problem with transformer calculations.
    I have 3ph 600V 200A feed , and trying to figure out size of transf. for 208V 1phase, there is many explanations but none on 3phase to single phase calculation. Can you help me please.

  35. A contractor has supplied a transformer 11/0.433 KV, 160 KVA . I suspect that the transformer is not of that rating. How can I check / Test this

  36. We have been supplied a Transformer of 160 KVA 11/0.433 rating. How we can check / test that the transformer is of Given rating ?

  37. for 600 KVA transformer what will be the line current or individual phase current?

    • For proper answer you will have to give following additional information. Whether the transformer is single phase or 3 phase. What is the primary and secondary voltage Please clarify .

  38. Dear Nirmal, This is not reply to my query.Your answer gives the loading on the transformer and NOT the Rating / capacity of transformer.

  39. obiukwu osita nemson

    How can i calculate transformer capacity with out looking at main plate of the transformer.

  40. Thank you to anil and vijay sir.

  41. The formula will give the load in VA or KVA on the single phase transformer and can not give the capacity of the transformer. The Capacity means How much load can be put on the said transformer without over heating and with voltage drop within limit .Wish proper guidance.

  42. how can we determine the KVA rating of a transformer from test

  43. My query is for determining the capacity

  44. My query is for determining the capacity of a available transformer.But I am not getting any proper answer to my query.

  45. daer all The word Capacity is very clear. It can never be the weight. The capacity means for a given transformer how much electrical load can be put on this transformer. Say for a transformer of 230 / 12 volts and 60 VA capacity ( Single phase) The max load can be 5 Amps on 12 V side if the load is exceeded the transformer will get overheated and may burn off. So if I want to verify this capacity , what is the laboratory method ? My origional question was regarding a transformer supplied by a contractor saying 160 KVA capacity but at about just 120 kva load this transformer gets over heated than the specified temperature. So the query. RAJ LAHARE

    • 160kVA Transformer Capacity overheated on 120kVA load? There may be different factors.
      Did you check the Transformer power factor (As improved P.F increased the T/F Capacity as well) or did you verify the proper cooling of the transformer?
      In your case, Transformer Load capacity will be considered as Transformer Rating in VA or kVA.
      Also, The Transformer load capacity is the Rating of the Transformer x P.f.

  46. Dear Sir,
    I specifically say that the load is 120 KVA and not KW so the question of Power factor do not come in picture. Still to communicate that the PF is 0.99 . The Transformer is outdoors like any other transformers so cooling etc do not come in picture . I suspect that the supplier must have supplied lower capacity transformer with rating plate of 160 Kva and I want to test / investigate this . RAJ LAHARE

    • For This, You need to know the two pieces of information

      1. the load line-to-line voltage (V)
      2. the maximum load phase current (I)

      kVA Capacity = ( √3 x V x I x cosΦ ) / 1000
      Do this simple calculation then
      Or You need This tool to do the job.

      • As per basics of transformer , The power capacity of transformer ( VA ) is based on the cross section and the permeability of the transformer core. Then the voltage is based on the Number of Turns . Based on the Voltage and the VA capacity the current is arrived at and then only considering standard losses the current is calculated which inturn will give the cross section of the winding conductor. Here the transformer is already received and is sealed. I know very well to ascertain the capacity by opening the transformer and then measuring the Core area, primary and secondary winding cross section area and then measuring number of turns each of primary and secondary. BUT I DO NOT WANT TO DO ALL THIS EXERCISE AND WANT TO CHECK THE CAPACITY OF SUPPLIED TRANSFORMER WITHOUT OPENING THE TRANSFORMER. I HOPE AT LEAST WITH ALL THIS CLARIFICATION I WILL GET PROPER GUIDANCE . I ONCE AGAIN SAY THAT I DOUBT ABOUT THE SUPPLIED TRANSFORMER IS NOT OF ORDERED ( 160 kva) CAPACITY. RAJ LAHARE

  47. Dear Sir,
    I need complete calculation with formula. Now my doubt is I have total 125kw load so how much rating of transformer I require. please inform it’s urgent to me.

  48. Dear Sudarshan,
    In my earlier mail I had given a comment and also suggested that the capacity of transformer is dependent on the max individual load so If you can give your list of 125 KW load the correct capacity can be calculated. RAJ LAHAREthe

  49. Devbansh yadav

    Its really satisfaction to concept thakyou sir..

  50. Sir why KVA is divided by 1000

  51. who is the owner of this website ?
    whoever he is, a simply genius of electrical engineering. simply awesome.

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