 # Electric & Magnetic Flux, Density & Field Intensity Formulas

## Electric Flux, Magnetic Flux, Electric Density, Magnetic Density, Electric Intensity and Magnetic Intensity Formulas & Equations ### Electric Flux Formula:

Electric flux is the electric field lines passing through an area A. It’s a vector quantity.

ΦE = EA

ΦE = EA cosθ

Where

• Φ= Electric flux
• E = Electric field
• A = Area of the surface
• θ = Angle between E and A

Non Uniform Electric Filed

dΦE = E dA

Electric flux for a closed Gaussian surface

ΦE = ∯s E dA = Q/ε0

Where

• Φ= Electric flux
• E = Electric field
• A = Area of the surface
• Q = electric charge inside the surfaces of A
• ε0 = permittivity of free space (also known as universal or electric constant which is equal to ε0 ≈ 8.854 187 817… x 10−12 F·m−1.)

The above equations is one of the four Maxwell’s equations also known as Gauss’ law related to an electric field.

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### Electric Flux Density Formula:

The electric flux per unit area is called the electric flux density.

D = ΦE /A

Other forms of equations for electric flux density are as follow:

D = εE = q/4πr2

E = q/4πεr2

E = q/4πεrε0r2

D = εrε0E

Where:

• D = Density
• ΦE = Electric flux
• A = Area

It is a scalar quantity and the unit is C/m2 i.e surface charge density “σ”.

### Electric Field Intensity Formula:

Force per unit charge is known as electric field intensity.

E = F/Q

Where:

• E = Electric Field Intensity
• F = Force
• Q = Electric Charge

The electric filed strength in volt per meter formula is as follow:

ε = e/d

### Magnetic Flux Formula:

The number of magnetic lines passing through area A is known as Magnetic flux.

Φb = BA cosθ

Where

• Φb = magnetic flux
• B = Magnetic field
• A = area
• θ = angle between B and A

It is a vector quantity and the general form of magnetic flux can be calculated by using the following equation:

ΦB = ∫∫A B dA

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### Magnetic Flux Density Formula:

The magnetic flux per unit area is called magnetic flux density in Tesla (webers per metre2) and it is a vector quantity.

B = Φ/A

Where:

• B = Magnetic Flux Density
• Φ = Magnetic Flux
• A = Area

Magnetic Field Intensity Formula:

Magnetic field strength or magnetic field intensity can be calculated by using the following equations

H = I/(2πr)

or

H = Fm/le    …   Ampere per meter.

or

H = B/μ0 – M

Where:

• H is the magnetic field intensity or magnetic field strength
• B is the flux density
• M is the magnetization
• μ0 is the permittivity
• l is the length
• F is the MMF (Magnetic motive force)

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