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# Electric circuits / Networks and important terms related to it you must know

Electrical Network

Combination of different electric elements or components which are connected in any way is called electric network
Complex Networks
A Circuit which contains on many electrical elements such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, current sources and Voltage source (both AC and DC) is called Complex network. These kinds of networks can’t be solved easily by simple ohm’s Law or Kirchhoff’s laws. I.e. we solve these circuits by specific technique i.e. Norton’s Theorem, Thevenin’s Theorem, Superposition theorem etc.

Circuit or Electric Circuit
Circuit is a close loop path giving a return path for the current. Or a close conducting path in which current can flow is called circuit
Click image to enlarge

Types of Electric Circuits
There are many types of electrical circuits.  Here we will briefly discuss one by one.
Series circuit = in this circuits, all the electrical elements (Voltage or Current sources, inductors, capacitors, resistors etc) are connected in series i.e.  There is only one path for traveling electricity and no other branches consist in this circuit.
Parallel circuits = in this circuits, all the electrical elements (Voltage or Current sources, inductors, capacitors, resistors etc) are connected in parallel i.e.  There are many paths for traveling electricity and the minimum branches in this circuit are two.
Series-parallel circuits = if circuit elements are series connected in some parts and parallel in others, that would be a series-parallel circuit. In other words, this is a combination of series and parallel circuits.
Star-Delta Circuits
Star-Delta Circuit = this is not series or parallel nor series-parallel circuit. In this circuit, electrical elements are connected such a way that undefined in term of Series, parallel or Series Parallel configuration. These kinds of circuits can be solved by Star Delta Transform or Delta Star transformation.
Following are more derived circuits of the Series, parallel, and Series-parallel circuits
• Pure Resistive Circuit
• Pure Inductive Circuit
• Pure Capacitive Circuit
• Resistive, Inductive Circuit i.e. RL Circuit (Series & Parallel)
• Resistive, Capacitive Circuit i.e. RC Circuit (Series & Parallel)
• Capacitive, Inductive Circuits i.e. LC Circuits (Series and Parallel)
• Resistive, Inductive, Capacitive Circuit RLC Circuit (Series & Parallel)

These all circuits are shown in below image.
Click image to enlarge

In the above circuits, all the above mentioned components or elements may be connected in series, parallel, or in series-parallel configuration.
Let’s go to discuss some more electric circuits which you must know before starting to analyze an Electric circuit or network.
Linear circuit
A linear circuit is an electric circuit in which circuit parameters (Resistance, inductance, capacitance, waveform, frequency etc) are constant. In other words, a circuit whose parameters are not changed with respect to Current and Voltage is called Linear Circuit.
Non linear circuits
A nonlinear circuit is an electric circuit whose parameters are varied with respect to Current and Voltage. In other words, an electric circuit in which circuit parameters (Resistance, inductance, capacitance, waveform, frequency etc) is not constant, is called Non Linear Circuit.
• ### The Main Difference between Linear and Nonlinear Circuit

Unilateral circuits
In unilateral circuits, the property of circuit changes with the change of direction of supply voltage or current. In other words, unilateral circuit allows the current to flow only in one direction. Diode rectifier is the best example of unilateral circuit because it does not perform the rectification in both direction of supply.
Bi-lateral circuits
In bilateral circuits, the property of circuit does not change with the change of direction of supply voltage or current. In other words, bilateral circuit allows the current to flow in both directions. Transmission line is the best example of bilateral circuit because, if you give supply from any direction, the circuit properties remain constant

• ### Difference between Unilateral and Bi-Lateral Circuits & Elements

Circuit’s Parameters or Constants and related terms
Different components or elements which use in Electric Circuits are called circuit’s parameters or constants i.e. resistance, capacitance, inductance, frequency etc. These parameters can be lumped or distributed.
Active Circuit
A circuit which contains on one or more E.MF (Electro motive force) sources is called Active Circuit
Passive Circuit
A circuit, in which no one EMF source exist is called Passive Circuit
Other important related terms to Electric Circuits and Networks
Node
A point or junction where two or more circuit’s elements (resistor, capacitor, inductor etc) meet is called Node
Branch
That part or section of circuit which locate between two junctions is called branch
In branch, one or more elements can be connected and they have two terminals.
Loop
A closed path in circuit where more than two meshes can be occurred is called loop i.e. there may be many meshes in a loop, but a mesh does not contain on one loop.
Mesh
A closed loop which contains no other loop within it or a path which does not contain on other paths is called Mesh.
Click image to enlarge
Good to know*
We use different theorems to solve complex networks. Generally, Complex network can be solved by the following two methods (which we will discuss later)
Direct method
Equivalent Circuit Method
(We will discuss these two methods latter)

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What is Reactive Power and Why it is Useful?  In recent years, the reactive power …

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